Web document 7.1. Globin evolution.

 

Zuckerkandl and Pauling (1962) observed the number of amino acid differences between a group of globins as follows. This table is adapted from their publication: Zuckerkandl, E., and Pauling, L. Molecular disease, evolution, and genic heterogeneity. In M. Kasha and B. Pullman (Eds.), Horizons In Biochemistry, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Dedicatory Volume. Academic, New York, 1962.

 

Table 1. Approximate time of derivation of different hemoglobin subunits from their common ancestor.

Proteins

Number of

differences

Estimated time of derivation from common protein ancestor

Corresponding

geological period

Current (2007)

estimate of number

of  differences

(see below)

b and d

~6

44 MYA

Eocene

10

b and g

~36

260 MYA

Beginning of Carboniferous

40

a and b

78

565 MYA

Toward end of

Pre-Cambrian

84

a and g

~83

600 MYA

Toward end of

Pre-Cambrian

81

gorilla a and human a

2

14.5 MYA

Pliocene

1

gorilla b and human b

1

7.3 MYA

1

 

Notes: MYA, millions of years ago. For the gorilla-human divergence, they assumed a mean value of 11 MYA. Current estimates are based on the pairwise alignments (below).

 

 

 

human beta and delta

>gi|4504349|ref|NP_000509.1| beta globin [Homo sapiens]
MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGKEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH
>gi|4504351|ref|NP_000510.1| delta globin [Homo sapiens]
MVHLTPEEKTAVNALWGKVNVDAVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSSPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFSQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLARNFGKEFTPQMQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH

 

Score =  280 bits (717),  Expect = 1e-74, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 137/147 (93%), Positives = 142/147 (96%), Gaps = 0/147 (0%)
 
Query  1    MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPK  60
            MVHLTPEEK+AV ALWGKVNVD VGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLS+PDAVMGNPK
Sbjct  1    MVHLTPEEKTAVNALWGKVNVDAVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSSPDAVMGNPK  60
 
Query  61   VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFG  120
            VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTF+ LSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLA +FG
Sbjct  61   VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFSQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLARNFG  120
 
Query  121  KEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH  147
            KEFTP +QAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH
Sbjct  121  KEFTPQMQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH  147

 

 

 

beta and gamma

>gi|4504349|ref|NP_000509.1| beta globin [Homo sapiens]
MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGKEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH
>gi|28302131|ref|NP_000550.2| A-gamma globin [Homo sapiens]
MGHFTEEDKATITSLWGKVNVEDAGGETLGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGNLSSASAIMGNPKVKAHGKKVLT
SLGDATKHLDDLKGTFAQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVTVLAIHFGKEFTPEVQASWQKMVTAVAS
ALSSRYH

 

Score =  228 bits (581),  Expect = 7e-59, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 107/147 (72%), Positives = 126/147 (85%), Gaps = 0/147 (0%)
 
Query  1    MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPK  60
            M H T E+K+ +T+LWGKVNV++ GGE LGRLLVVYPWTQRFF+SFG+LS+  A+MGNPK
Sbjct  1    MGHFTEEDKATITSLWGKVNVEDAGGETLGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGNLSSASAIMGNPK  60
 
Query  61   VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFG  120
            VKAHGKKVL +  D   HLD+LKGTFA LSELHCDKLHVDPENF+LLGNVLV VLA HFG
Sbjct  61   VKAHGKKVLTSLGDATKHLDDLKGTFAQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVTVLAIHFG  120
 
Query  121  KEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH  147
            KEFTP VQA++QK+V  VA+AL+ +YH
Sbjct  121  KEFTPEVQASWQKMVTAVASALSSRYH  147

 

 

beta and alpha

>gi|4504349|ref|NP_000509.1| beta globin [Homo sapiens]
MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGKEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH
>gi|4504347|ref|NP_000549.1| alpha 1 globin [Homo sapiens]
MVLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGKKVADALTNA
VAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPAVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSK
YR

 

Score =  108 bits (271),  Expect = 7e-23, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 61/145 (42%), Positives = 86/145 (59%), Gaps = 8/145 (5%)
 
Query  4    LTPEEKSAVTALWGKV--NVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKV  61
            L+P +K+ V A WGKV  +  E G EAL R+ + +P T+ +F  F      D   G+ +V
Sbjct  3    LSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHF------DLSHGSAQV  56
 
Query  62   KAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGK  121
            K HGKKV  A ++ +AH+D++    + LS+LH  KL VDP NF+LL + L+  LA H   
Sbjct  57   KGHGKKVADALTNAVAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPA  116
 
Query  122  EFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKY  146
            EFTP V A+  K +A V+  L  KY
Sbjct  117  EFTPAVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKY  141

 

 

alpha and gamma

>gi|4504347|ref|NP_000549.1| alpha 1 globin [Homo sapiens]
MVLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGKKVADALTNA
VAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPAVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSK
YR
>gi|28302131|ref|NP_000550.2| A-gamma globin [Homo sapiens]
MGHFTEEDKATITSLWGKVNVEDAGGETLGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGNLSSASAIMGNPKVKAHGKKVLT
SLGDATKHLDDLKGTFAQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVTVLAIHFGKEFTPEVQASWQKMVTAVAS
ALSSRYH

 

Score =  106 bits (264),  Expect = 4e-22, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 60/141 (42%), Positives = 84/141 (59%), Gaps = 8/141 (5%)
 
Query  7    DKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHF-DLSHGSA-----QVKGHG  60
            DK  + + WGKV     + G E L R+ + +P T+ +F  F +LS  SA     +VK HG
Sbjct  8    DKATITSLWGKVNVE--DAGGETLGRLLVVYPWTQRFFDSFGNLSSASAIMGNPKVKAHG  65
 
Query  61   KKVADALTNAVAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTP  120
            KKV  +L +A  H+DD+    + LS+LH  KL VDP NFKLL + L+  LA H   EFTP
Sbjct  66   KKVLTSLGDATKHLDDLKGTFAQLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVTVLAIHFGKEFTP  125
 
Query  121  AVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKY  141
             V AS  K + +V++ L+S+Y
Sbjct  126  EVQASWQKMVTAVASALSSRY  146

 

 

human to gorilla (alpha and beta)

>gi|4504347|ref|NP_000549.1| alpha 1 globin [Homo sapiens]
MVLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGKKVADALTNA
VAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPAVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSK
YR
>gi|229150|prf||610524A hemoglobin alpha
VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGDYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGKKVADALTNAV
AHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPAVHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKY
R

 

Score =  249 bits (635),  Expect = 4e-65, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 140/141 (99%), Positives = 141/141 (100%), Gaps = 0/141 (0%)
 
Query  2    VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGEYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGK  61
            VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAG+YGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGK
Sbjct  1    VLSPADKTNVKAAWGKVGAHAGDYGAEALERMFLSFPTTKTYFPHFDLSHGSAQVKGHGK  60
 
Query  62   KVADALTNAVAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPA  121
            KVADALTNAVAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPA
Sbjct  61   KVADALTNAVAHVDDMPNALSALSDLHAHKLRVDPVNFKLLSHCLLVTLAAHLPAEFTPA  120
 
Query  122  VHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKYR  142
            VHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKYR
Sbjct  121  VHASLDKFLASVSTVLTSKYR  141

 

 

human to gorilla (beta)

>gi|4504349|ref|NP_000509.1| beta globin [Homo sapiens]
MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGKEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH
>gi|232230|sp|P02024|HBB_GORGO Hemoglobin subunit beta (Hemoglobin beta chain) (Beta-globin)
MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPKVKAHGKKVLG
AFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVCVLAHHFGKEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVAN
ALAHKYH

 

Score =  293 bits (750),  Expect = 2e-78, Method: Composition-based stats.
 Identities = 146/147 (99%), Positives = 147/147 (100%), Gaps = 0/147 (0%)
 
Query  1    MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPK  60
            MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPK
Sbjct  1    MVHLTPEEKSAVTALWGKVNVDEVGGEALGRLLVVYPWTQRFFESFGDLSTPDAVMGNPK  60
 
Query  61   VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFRLLGNVLVCVLAHHFG  120
            VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENF+LLGNVLVCVLAHHFG
Sbjct  61   VKAHGKKVLGAFSDGLAHLDNLKGTFATLSELHCDKLHVDPENFKLLGNVLVCVLAHHFG  120
 
Query  121  KEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH  147
            KEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH
Sbjct  121  KEFTPPVQAAYQKVVAGVANALAHKYH  147